Racism is generally understood as either belief that different racial groups are characterized by intrinsic characteristics or abilities and that some such groups are therefore naturally superior to others or as practices that discriminate against members of particular racial groups, for example by perpetuating unequal access to resources between groups
The definition of racism is controversial both because there is little scholarly agreement about what the word “race” means, and because there is also little agreement about what does and doesn’t constitute discrimination
In politics, racism is commonly located on the far right due to the far right’s common association with nativism, racism, and xenophobia. In history, racism has been a major part of the political and ideological underpinning of genocides such as the holocaust, but also in colonial contexts such as the rubber booms in South America and the Congo, and in the European conquest of the Americas and colonization of Africa, Asia and Australia. It was also a driving force behind the transatlantic slave trade, and behind states based on racial segregation such as the USA in the 19th and early twentieth centuries and South Africa under apartheid. Practices and ideologies of racism are universally condemned by the United Nations in the Declaration of Human Rights.
“No human race is superior; no religious faith is inferior. All collective judgments are wrong
. Only racists make them”
― Elie Wiesel
Declarations and international law against racial discrimination
In 1919, a proposal to include a racial equality provision in the Covenant of the League of Nations was supported by a majority, but not adopted in the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. In 1943, Japan and its allies declared work for the abolition of racial discrimination to be their aim at the Greater East Asia Conference. Article 1 of the 1945 UN Charter includes “promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race” as UN purpose.
The Structure of the Declaration
The underlying structure of the Universal Declaration was introduced in its second draft which was prepared by René Cassin. Cassin worked from a first draft prepared by John Peters Humphrey. The structure was influenced by the Code Napoleon, including a preamble and introductory general principles. Cassin compared the Declaration to the portico of a Greek temple, with a foundation, steps, four columns and a pediment. Articles 1 and 2 are the foundation blocks, with their principles of dignity, liberty, equality and brotherhood. The seven paragraphs of the preamble, setting out the reasons for the Declaration, are represented by the steps. The main body of the Declaration forms the four columns. The first column (articles 3–11) constitutes rights of the individual, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery. The second column (articles 12–17) constitutes the rights of the individual in civil and political society. The third column (articles 18–21) is concerned with spiritual, public and political freedoms such as freedom of religion and freedom of association. The fourth column (articles 22–27) sets out social, economic and cultural rights. In Cassin’s model, the last three articles of the Declaration provide the pediment which binds the structure together. These articles are concerned with the duty of the individual to society and the prohibition of use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations
Sudan and racism
Sudan and the country name and launched by the Arabs is to collect a composite that is collected black and black is a collection of Sudan. And they were so-called limited the area east of the Red Sea and the Atlantic Ocean west of sub-Saharan this name since 3900 BC. M.
Interesting thing is that the first inhabitants of the Sudan in the stone ages (8000 BC – 3200 BC) were sex Negro, but the skulls that were found to those found to be different from any race Negro lives today, including Sudan’s population existing in all races.
Generally, in the ancient history classes were normal even when the emergence of religions such as Christianity and Islam Slavery was an integral part of the social fabric and did not abolish slavery, but those religions that many people have been enslaved by armies fighting and war in the name of these religions.
The great civilizations, including the Kingdom of Kush influenced and affected each other in a commercial or military relations and of the Greeks has been a clear impact in the Kingdom of Kush, the ancient Nubian and the the other way around.
When the spread of Islam came to Sudan strongly after the armies of al-Zahir Baybars, which dramatically transformed the northern Sudan from Christianity to Islam in less than a hundred years .. Inherited some of the northern tribes of Arab culture and some Arab blood. This, of course, after years during which the Nuba slaves to pay year after year for Muslims after the agreement Bakt. It seems that they were owned slaves even before the arrival of the Muslims for their war and were not an agreement Bakt alone why they started to hunt for people to push them tribute to Muslims in Egypt.
in Sudan patronizing and racism are practiced by black against black, another brother and his brother at home in the plight of racial discrimination in the world is his colleague in this ordeal, but why
Superiority exercised by the Sudanese Arabic-speaking language or the other languages of the people of Sudan and Superiority exercised by the Muslims of people of other languages or the non-Arab non-Muslim ethnic groups of the same.
“Ignorance and prejudice are the handmaidens of propaganda. Our mission, therefore, is to confront ignorance with knowledge, bigotry with tolerance, and isolation with the outstretched hand of generosity. Racism can, will, and must be defeated.”
― Kofi Annan
Religion and racism
Muslims make up the vast majority of the population of Sudan and in spite of what contains Islam’s attempts for equality and justice but it is different in the case of dealing with non-Muslims.
Islamist burn the a Church in Jarif West
April 21, 2012
Islamist led by supporters of Mohammed Abdul Karim demolished the Evangelical Church of Jarif West by bulldozer, and set fire, in the presence of numbers of police were watching the attack, afternoon April 21 dozens of Islamist armed with sticks may have imposed a siege on the Church
And have already tried with a group attack on the church three weeks ago and failed, but invested the climate of violence and racism prevalent since last weeks and threatened burned the church and carried out its threat to noon today in the presence of 6 vehicles filled with Police Central Reserve and several other in the plains for help and operations, who were all watching the assault without any attempt to stop them.
This escalated acts of persecution against Christians since the announcement of Omar al-Bashir in Gedaref not accept religious pluralism in Sudan after the separation, and burned since the announcement that a number of churches in Khartoum, South Kordofan, and a number of priests receiving death threats.
We stress the experience of history that can be measured in a humanitarian way in which each society treats its Minorities, and tie the hands of that minorities pay prices that later Vtgd shackles on their hands are the same. The militants and shouting (not a church anymore, not a Christian from today) Rev. Joseph Matar, describing the burning of the Jarif church : What happened was terrible unimaginable
Description of the Rev. Joseph Matar – General Secretary of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Sudan – in a statement (freedoms) burn Synod Palgrave West yesterday, saying (it was something terrible can not imagine).
The complex Evangelical Church on the ground and large owned by the church a hundred years ago, and includes three halls (churches) to worship, and the Institute of the Bible – out priests who take care of Churches Presbyterian in the country – and the home for the elderly and a refuge for children and medical clinics, and boarding houses for priests learners.
Rev. Matar said that there are several points of desires in the territory of the complex, and made several attempts to achieve this purpose
Khartoum over the twenty-three years of injustice, oppression, tyranny and arrogance, corruption, murder and steal people’s money and destroy the social fabric and disrupt the politicians and leaders, the community and Establishments that time for this disses this regime to go from the country people and to benefit the people the State of transparency and the rule of law of the country led by the owners of Qualifications, experience and capacity to a free democratic country home too all, without racial or regional or religious or sectarian.
Times New Roman