Religious extremism have emerged since the early seventies some of the extremist religious organizations which took proliferation and growing, making them a threat to ruling regimes and stability in the countries.
Followed this approach absolute secrecy regulations in their movement and became violence is a key element to achieve ideology and securing its presence, which led to an increased risk of these organizations of the difficulty in tracking the movement and response and reducing its terrorist schemes.
Despite appearances recent violence and extremism in some followers of Islam but Islamic history since his youth knew currents religious extremist was assassinated three Caliphs (age – on – Osman) in issued the Islamic state and the widening Athalasalamah and Iqbal Muslim world appeared “range Sufis,” which calls Alzhd and symptoms for life, which is another kind of extremism, originated as a host of other took the violence and fighting and a way to cleanse the Islamic state and bring it back to its first state.
The Islamic history of these teams (Alkramah, Kharijites, Isolationists) and follower of this difference is noted It’s common thought and goal, but the application is a method that differs.
Entered the phenomenon of terrorism a new stage in the Middle East since the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and parodies judgment …. The wave of terror began religious and communal spreading in some countries in the region such as Syria, Musroaldzaúr and the Gulf states, hoping to climb to the reins of power.
the idea of extremist religious groups is to: -
1. Judgment on Jaahiliyyah communities and disbelief for the non-application of the law of God, and resorting to humans when developing legislation laws.
2. Migration from the land of vulnerability to new places can form the nucleus of the Muslim community and then return to the establishment of the Muslim community in the state, although there are some groups calling retire existing communities and to repudiate.
3. Jihad’s armed authorization pillars of the regime and the establishment of the Muslim community misplaced.
Reasons for the emergence and spread of extremist Islamic groups: -
There are a variety of reasons contributed concerted in the emergence of extremist organizations some of which are summarized in the following: -
1. Islamic leaders’ reluctance and negative based on Call and Guidance Affairs of the Islamic religion led to become a free arena for thought and beliefs of these groups.
2. The apparent increase in Christian missionary activity and increasing Christian fanaticism which is supported by some regimes and governments to countries outside the Arab region of the factors that helped the emergence of radical Islamic groups in the Arab arena.
3. The emergence of leftist thought at a time, and leftist control over some important centers such as universities and the penetration of atheistic thought among students, which led to the emergence of Islamic thought to face this direction, especially with the strengthening of the ruling regimes have to face the penetration of the Communists.
4. The success of the Islamic revolution in Iran led by Imam Khomeini gave extremist Islamic groups hope to repeat this success in other places through the method of work of the secret cells.
5. Acquittals obtained by some religious groups in some countries encouraged these groups to continue to operate even and Zadtha daring and experience in practice.
Manifestations of religious terrorism different from other forms of terrorism
Different religious terrorism (that we may call this definition on the method by which the extremist religious groups) for other forms of terrorism as follows:
1 – Financing: -
Usually religious groups are funded by voluntary contributions, which are obtained from members or supporters of the group thought of outside and inside the country.
The other funding organizations depends mainly on the armed robbery of banks and holding hostages for ransom and material support – to some foreign regimes and rarely rely on money supporters and sympathizers.
2 – Motivation: -
Motivation of all Islamic groups is the establishment of the Muslim community and the application of the law of God either defended terrorist organizations is to control the government by creating chaos and panic among the citizens.
3 – public announcement: -
Characterized by the emergence of groups religious Balalnah and the announcement of ideas in order to make the agents either terrorist organizations always disappear underground in small clusters do not appear only when a terrorist act
Methods used in the implementation of terrorist operations: -
Although the IED is the most commonly used means in terrorist operations but there are other methods specific followed by all organizations to perform operations such as:
· Hijacking planes or ships.
· Armed intrusion of public places and hostage-taking.
· Kidnapping for ransom or the release of political prisoners.
· Use of improvised explosive devices.
(1) hijacking: -
Hijackings began Despairing members because of the deep sense of injustice as a result of exposure of their rights and their homes lost. Kidnappers were keen to be their operations without the shedding of the blood of innocent people who happen to travel by plane as they were keen to declare about themselves and their goals.
Development it became kidnappers profess request huge ransom or the release of some political prisoners in jails or members of terrorist groups and organizations previously arrested in previous operations, and became the violence and killing is the style of negotiating with state authorities terrorists to achieve their desires.
Despite stringent security measures at all airports in the world to prevent piracy Jawahala hijackings but did not stop in a continuous increase and become the most important methods used in terrorist operations.
There is another kind of piracy can call it piracy In the period from 1965 until 1985 and signed 47 terror incident at sea sank 12 vessels and hijacked 11 ships other. Perhaps the first incidents of maritime piracy in recent years what happened in 1963, when stormed 70 sailors Portuguese ship passengers Portuguese transported 600 passengers and detained the ship and the hostages out for 11 days but failed kidnappers in their demands for they came Hebenima to Brazil, not accidents, “Achille Lauro” “Cole” and others are just a few examples of this dangerous activity.
(2) armed intrusion of public places and hostage-taking: -
Aimed at terrorists in most armed intrusions and hostage-taking places to get the money as ransom to finance their organizations and examples: -
1 – operation to storm the headquarters of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Vienna, Austria in 1975 and the detention of eleven Minister of Petroleum and was planned and executed with the terrorist Carlos and was the name of the organization that claimed responsibility for the attack (the arm – the Arab Revolt) and estimated ransom they got $ 25 million for the release of the hostages.
2 – storming members of the Organization of the Japanese Red Army to the U.S. Consulate in Kuala Lumpur in 1975 and the detention of its staff, including the U.S. consul and charge d’affaires Swedish Government has responded Japanese demands Organization for the release of some members of the Organization of prisoners and handed over six million dollars and equipped them a private jet brought them to Tripoli Libya for the release of the hostages.
(3) kidnapping for ransom: -
Often based groups and organizations such operations in order to obtain money to finance their operations and in some cases the gangs such operations for the purpose of ransom.
We recall, for example: -
1 – the kidnapping and torture of Colonel (Buhi Buck) acting president of the Unification Church and owner of the newspaper (The Washington Times) in September 1984 and released after paying a million dollars.
2 – the abduction and killing of Italian leader (Aledumoro) in 1978 in the deadliest terrorist series carried out by the Italian Red Brigades.
3 – kidnapped daughter of the President of El Salvador and detained for 44 days to put pressure on the head of state to make certain decisions.
4 – The detention incident members of the U.S. embassy in Tehran, which lasted for a very long time and failed the editing process emanating from Egypt miserably U.S. planes were not released his dialogue was purely political reasons.
(4) assassinations: -
Assassinations generally many and varied reasons vary depending on the motives and also differ from one incident to another, but can recall more reasons Alaghtylat Cioaafima following: -
Terrorist assassination: -
Which is implemented by terrorist groups against the ruling authority to show its inability to achieve security.
Which often aims to political Azahhh_khasm.
Assassination of tyrants: -
Which is what he is doing one of the people against the tyrant.
Assassination in order to draw attention to the issue or the generator.
Personal assassination motivated though because of personal or family vendetta.
It can remind the Arab arena, the most prominent assassinations in the following: -
Assassination of King Abdullah of Jordan in Jerusalem in 1951
Assassination by President Algashimy of Yemen Achammalahaam 1978
The assassination of Lebanese President Bashir Gemayel in 1982
Assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in 1981 during a military parade to celebrate the October War victories
And saw Egypt’s modern history 20 assassination important succeeded 7 attempts were: -
Killed (Boutros Pasha Ghali) and Prime Minister of Egypt on 20 February 1910
Killed Sir / Lee Stack Sardar Egyptian army and a senior British officers in 1924
Assassination of Ahmed Maher Pasha and Prime Minister of Egypt on February 24, 1945.
Amin killed Osman Pasha, Minister of Finance of Egypt in 1946.
Killed Mahmoud Fahmy Nuqrashi Pasha Egypt’s Prime Minister on December 8, 1948.
Killing d / Rifaat Mahgoub President of the People’s Assembly on Oct. 2 in 1990
The assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981.
This is in addition to the violence and the attempted assassination of many public figures and members of the Israeli Embassy in Egypt at the hands of what is known as organized Egypt’s Revolution In August 20 1985, was assassinated Israeli diplomat (Albert Atrakeshy) and hit his wife and secretary by an armed attack on car suburb Maadi by members of the organization of Egypt’s Revolution also attacked members of the same organization working wing Israeli Cairo International Fair during their departure from the land of fairs and attack led to the killing and wounding of three others.
(5) the use of improvised explosive devices: -
Terrorist organizations resorting to the use of improvised explosive devices in their operations because of the ease of use and access to relics and desired results immediately in addition to the IED that one of the safest methods for individuals Alqaúmyin have created and put it in the goal area.
Among the most prominent packaging operations Nasfahalty carried out in the Arab arena: -
19,831 – events Kuwait in terms of swept Kuwait series of explosions by car bombs targeted the headquarters of embassies U.S. and French in the Kuwaiti capital in addition to a number of foreign firms, national and resulted in these explosions for large numbers of dead and wounded as well as the destruction and horror that prevailed citizens across Kuwait.
2 – commando operations: against Israeli troops in Lebanon manner using suicide car bombs loaded with hundreds of kilo grams of explosive material.
3 – commando operations against Israeli forces inside Israel manner using suicide car bombs or mining the body of the individual itself.
Terrorism in the Middle East: -
A study for the Center for Political and Strategic Studies of the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram that terrorism in the Middle East has become a phenomenon attracts attention. And occupied the Middle East ranked second as a staging ground for terrorist operations after Europe if incidents of terrorism reached the 2640 incident over twenty years only (this study before the events of September 11, 2001 and the escalation of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization)
The study shows that terrorism in the Middle East grew closely linked to the Palestinian cause and Arab-Israeli conflict, but he later success of the Iranian revolution entered the phenomenon of terrorism a new phase has begun phase terrorism religious and communal deployed in countries such as Syria and Musrwaldzaúr and some Gulf states and ended in Iraq in addition to Lebanon that sectarian terrorism dates back to several years ago, which turned into a civil war.